Wednesday, September 2, 2020


Job OF BUSINESS ETHICS IN CORPORATE AMERICA, GLOBAL ECONOMY AND LATEST FINANCIAL CRISIS - Research Proposal Example The debasement and ravenousness that accompanied intensity of total control through economy additionally assumed it significant job in the continuous decay. The belief system of free market economy and the entrepreneur economy offered ascend to the financial set up that is most obviously polished in America. It rose against the socialist and fundamentalist goals and turned into the agent arrangement of popular government. As the economies developed they advanced into a specific framework with solid principles and guidelines. The business and enterprises created and as the economy got worldwide, these ventures and organizations formed into global associations and corporate. The corporate turned into the focal organs of the monetary framework, and with these set up, emerged the need of expanding benefits. Notwithstanding, with the unlimited oversight of economy came power for these corporate that likewise held the spot to settle on key choices. As is said the supreme force ruins totally, so with the unlimited oversight over the vast majority of monetary choices and with the ability to control governments with their financial influence, the corporate pioneers enjoyed debasement and the stream down impact remained constant, as each one of those under them, followed their lead. The corporate culture that created in these conditions was full of untrustworthy practices; it took care of covetousness and ravenousness thus lead to defilement in all the fundamental quarters. While some of them were charged and rebuffed for their practices, the majority of them proceeded with the practices under the affectation of amplification of benefits that at last needed to stream down to the lower layers of the general public. This be that as it may, was not the case and keeping in mind that the cash amassed in the hairdos of the couple of, the primary individuals who should be the recipient of the free market endured and neglected to advance. The circumstance everywhere throughout the globe continued as before. The financial emergency likewise, influenced those at the lower-layers of society, or in the immature nations, aggravating their sufferings even. Beginning with the sub-prime home loan emergency, the economy in America confronted a serious financial issue, and the circumstance prompted a total withdrawal of confidence on part of the individuals in the monetary strategies and exchanges of government. This emergency thusly influenced the worldwide economy as every one of those countries who had put resources into the partnerships that were announced bankrupt or were nearly it, sank taking with them all the put away cash. The economies universally were additionally influenced on account of the seriously interconnected nature of the worldwide exchange and business. A lower central bank in any nation influenced the trust of every single other nation in them and with the US itself on verge of monetary catastrophe because of absence of liquidity, the current circumstance turns into a matter of grave worry for all included. The circumstance additionally bears witness to the way that changes in the current financial set-up are gravely required. End The need of the time is to devise techniques and make laws, just as to ensure the usage of

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Rise of Private High Schools Essay Example for Free

The Rise of Private High Schools Essay Introduction For a long time secondary school training has been the duty of the state.â Yet, in a matter of moments in history did government become so completely engaged with youthful instruction as after the Second World War.â The period of large government would mean enormous spending in different social projects, one of the most significant of which would be education.â Groundbreaking advances would be found in the guidance of different territories of training recently disregarded, for example, music, craftsmanship and sports. Alongside this association in the lives of their youngsters came guardians confidence that in nations, for example, Canada and the United States, government funded instruction, most explicitly secondary school training, would lay the preparation for a safe and prosperous future for the future grown-ups of the country.  It was uniquely towards the finish of the Cold War that globalization joined by neo-liberal financial matters would constrain Canadians to reevaluate their open secondary schools.  â â â â â â â â â â The expanding significance of changing innovation combined with the general decay of state funded schools has made us look with more noteworthy distrust upon governments capacity to deal with the educational system in the present day.â It is for these very reasons that guardians have gotten increasingly open to the upsides of private education.â Despite the way that open secondary schools are still to a great extent in the hands of government over the most recent twenty years, we have seen a huge development in private foundation attendance.â The motivation behind this work is to examine the ascent of private secondary school instruction and talk about its conceivable future. Writing Review Current writing underpins the decrease of the open secondary school and the ascent in significance of the tuition based school.  Aurini and Davies (2004, 2007) have done indepth examination on territories of private tutoring in Ontario, for example, private coaching and self-teaching and all through their readings have maintained that private schooling is on the rise.â Aurini (2004) in her experience as a private mentor and in her ensuing examination concerning private schooling has seen a remarkable ascent in significant of private schooling, most explicitly with mentalities towards parents.â In truth Aurini (2006) goes to far as to state that appearance of private schooling has brought about the re-trim of government funded instruction.  â â â â â â â â â â Although obviously examines are demonstrating the rising significance of private schooling they are likewise plotting why this is occurring.â Geiger (1994) unmistakably believes that the globalized world and the resultant increment of requests on understudies and schools to stay aware of mechanical advances is overpowering for state funded schools and contracting instruction budgets.â Davies (1999) adds to this contention in his examination of strict gatherings and the developing acknowledgment by legislatures of their demands.â Whereas twenty years back their was a considerably more mixture mindset encompassing various requests for tutoring, with the development of independence worldwide so comes the development of individual training. There are various liberal disapproved of creators, for example, Finn who accept that the responses to these issues can be given by the market.â The steady push by certain researchers to reliably fix up government funded school issues are dismissed by Finn.â He accepts a progressively extreme change is important to tidy up state funded schools.  â â â â â â â â â â Yet, numerous creators keep on having faith in the government funded educational system and battle that it is a fundamental piece of vote based system and correspondence in a nation.â Fotopoulos (2004) claims that while people live in the public arena, they are in reality social people and that one of the most demonstrated strategies for making them some portion of society is through a state funded school system.â Yet, other than increment school financial plans it turns out to be increasingly more hard to track down answers for the state funded educational systems problems.â Cowley (2001), in irritation states, â€Å"while there is understanding about the requirement for better schools, there is no understanding about how to improve our schools.†  Development of Private Education Different types of private schooling have extended in great numbers in the Western world in the course of the last two centuries.â What was once thought of as an extravagance or an innecessity by numerous guardians is currently being rethought as a reasonable and safe option.â Canada isn't the exemption, in spite of the fact that it is an eminent case of how private schooling elements are making progress. Davies and Aurini (2004) guarantee that enlistment in tuition based schools in Canada has gone from 5% to 6% during the previous decade (p. 420).â Although the number in appearance may appear to be little it means a 20% development for private schools.â In Ontario the development is significantly all the more amazing and arrived at 40% with a sum of 750 schools in the area (Davies and Aurini, p. 420).â Private training is picking up significance with guardians of both more youthful and more established students.â This is obviously found in the extension of Montessori schools just as exclusive professional universities (Aurini and Davies, 2004).â what's more we ought not disregard the development of private coaching and self-teaching. Aside from the development of private foundations it is essential to think about impression of private versus open education.â A review taken a year ago found that â€Å"46% of guardians would want to send their young youngsters to tuition based schools, while 60% of Ontarians concurred with the expression ‘private school understudies get vastly improved instruction than state funded school students’† (Aurini, 2006, p. 108)  Inconvenience in Public Education As recently referenced private schooling, up to this point, has taken the rearward sitting arrangement the staggering significance of government lead education.â A comprehension of state funded instruction today and every one of its issues necessitates that we comprehend its history.â when the new century rolled over we saw a noteworthy ascent in enormous government, explicitly in Canada.â The way of life and society that spun around the government assistance condition of the post-WWII period unmistakably upheld governments attack into the fields of training and wellbeing, to give some examples. Guardians setting their youngsters in the hands of the state held the general conviction that the schools would put forth a valiant effort to give equivalent chance and social mobility.â Private schools supposedly fell in the domain of the individuals who could bear the cost of their galactic costs. Regularly tuition based schools were related to religion and the upper classes.â Gabbard (2004) states that government funded schools in American culture have held such obligations as â€Å"equalizing sexual orientation and racial imbalances, giving the information and aptitudes that give everybody an equivalent chance to encounter the ‘American Dream,’ creating a workforce with abilities that empower U.S. partnerships to contend adequately in the worldwide commercial center, and getting ready residents to be successful members in an equitable society† (p. 3).â â There was a typical want to accept that â€Å"schools reinforce our majority rules system, [and] our capacity to seriously partake in the dynamic procedures that sway our networks and our lives† (Gabbard, 2004, p. 3). Regardless of whether government funded schools are still up to this assignment is one of the awful inquiries we should pose ourselves.â Indeed, what has consistently been a momentous undertaking has been additionally been troubled by the idea of our undeniably worldwide, progressively innovation based and progressively serious society.â Geiger (1994) claims, â€Å"To prevail in the 21st century, today’s understudies must alumni with more than information on the past.â They should be able to combine and investigate new data, have an independent mind, and adjust rapidly to an existence where change in the constant† (p. 63).â The mechanical instruments that are available in practically all types of work are frequently not found in government funded schools (Geiger, 1994). Inconvenience in High Schools Unmistakably secondary schools are confronting difficulties they have not needed to look in the previous fifty years or that possibly they never have needed to face.â Run-down structures, packed classes, school savagery, and poor rustic help are just a portion of the issues on the not insignificant rundown any instructor, parent or school overseer could give you.â There is by all accounts less schools than ever.â One report shows that,  â â â â â â â A total rebuilding of secondary school offices is required, as the present plan drives adolescents into a domain in opposition to the manner in which they learn. The first and most significant change ought to be a decrease in the size of secondary schools. Research has indicated that understudies have better participation, are more averse to drop out, display less order issues, and perform better when going to a littler high school† (Hall and Handly, 2004, p. 21). A much all the more distracting issue is that of brutality at school.â The most recent couple of hundreds of years has seen an expansion in assaults of fury and an essentially increasingly savage atmosphere.â One executive cases that, â€Å"It was simply after numerous long periods of experience and examination that we started to comprehend the level of wrath todays young people feel and how the educational system is bombing them, scholastically as well as in pretty much every possible way† (Hall and Handly, 2004, p. 21).  â â â â â â â â â â While urban schools are tormented by savagery and packed study halls numerous country Ontario schools are deficient in essential material resources.â Low school subsidizing is by all accounts a difficult most popular to northern sheets and provincial Ontario sheets (Trouble in, 2004).â An investigation done by The People for Education shows that â€Å"Ontario’s littler schools are more averse to have bookkeepers

Friday, August 21, 2020

Ancient Greece and Greek Red-figure Vase Essay Example for Free

Antiquated Greece and Greek Red-figure Vase Essay In antiquated Greece, most occupations were finished by slaves rather than free individuals. This was on the grounds that the Greeks had no cash to pay laborers with (until the Archaic time frame), and in light of the fact that they had no tickers (to quantify to what extent someone had worked). Be that as it may, it was additionally on the grounds that it is less expensive to constrain individuals to work for you than it is to pay them. The vast majority who were slaves in Greece had been brought into the world free. They were sold into subjugation by their folks when they were youngsters, in light of the fact that their folks were too poor to even consider taking consideration of them. Or then again they were caught by ruffians or as detainees of war and sold as slaves. A couple of slaves were the offspring of different slaves. A few slaves were Greek and some were Persians or Egyptians or Scythians. There were a great deal of employments, thus about 33% of the individuals living in antiquated Greece were slaves. Slaves were possessed by others, and needed to work for their proprietors. They couldn't choose to go work for another person. On the off chance that they wouldn't work, their proprietor hit them. Individuals who were slaves couldn't wed or bring up kids without their owner’s consent. Furthermore, slaves could be sold whenever. The vast majority of the slaves worked in the fields, furrowing and planting seeds and collecting wheat and grain and olives. A few slaves worked for little ranches, possibly only a couple of slaves working nearby their chief. Different slaves chipped away at colossal homesteads with many different slaves, and never observed their proprietor. Slaves who worked in the fields were practically all men. Different slaves, the two people, worked in production lines or little shops, making shoes or shields or stoneware or calfskin or weaving fabric. A few slaves trim hair in barbershops, and others worked in the open showers. Some were whores. Slaves who could peruse and compose were regularly educators or bookkeepers. Or on the other hand slaves who had aptitudes may be performers or artists. Talented slaves were frequently liberated when they got too old to even consider working, however we’re uncertain about whether this was fortunate or unfortunate for them. Fewer slaves filled in as workers in the places of their proprietors. Ladies functioned as wet-medical attendants, or as caretakers, or as cleaning ladies or cooks. They went to get water from the open wellsprings. Men worked dealing with the ponies, or going with free kids to class, or as jacks of all trades or plant specialists. Men went to the market to do the shopping each day. These slaves, as well, were regularly liberated when they got old and couldn’t work any longer. Some poor slaves worked paddling exchanging ships. They were held down in the base of the boat and never observed the sun, and they were given just bread and water to eat, and were frequently beaten to make them pull the paddles harder. Most men who functioned as rowers didn’t live extremely long. Yet, the slaves that were the most exceedingly awful off were the men who worked in the silver mines. The silver in the mines was blended in with lead. So the men who worked in these mines bit by bit passed on of lead harming. No one lived more than a few years. Their proprietors realized that the slaves were being harmed, however they didn’t care. A portion of these slaves were hoodlums, killers or criminals who were being rebuffed by functioning as slaves. Others were slaves who had attempted to flee from different employments, or had would not work. In any case, numerous slaves went to the mines for reasons unknown by any means, since individuals were expected to work in the mines, and free individuals didn’t need that sort of work

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Online Is The Perfect Website Destination For Those Who...

E! Online E! Online is the perfect website destination for those who eat, sleep, and breathe pop culture. Pop culture is a phenomenon that has taken root all across the nation. In order to reach that wide range of audience branched out and can now be accessible on other social media networks such as twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and many more. With more than thirty-nine million multiplatform visitors per month E! Online is one of the fastest growing digital destinations. This website does a perfect job on delivering what’s viral now with exclusive breaking news, in-depth celebrity coverage, TV scoops, fashion trends and much more. This website is not only informative to the viewer but also very captivating to the viewer’s eye due to its visual appearance, simple readability, and trouble-free navigation. One major key element that makes a website successful is to have an appealing visual appearance. Just like people form first impressions by looking at a person, first impressions on a website is no different. Although, E! Online homepage is very simple with its white background and black text they do make sure to add splashes of color here and there to highlight the latest news and trends. As you start to navigate through the website each category depending on what it’s about has its own distinct background which is quite unique. The pictures and videos chose to put on their website are very captivating and same goes for their captions. These imagesShow MoreRelatedDieting Makes People Fat Essay19490 Words   |  78 Pagesinvestigated by scientists to know more about the smoking related diseases. IF YOU HAVE AN EXCESS WEIGHT, HOW CAN YOU LOSE IT? Tips to Lose Weight in a Week To shed those calories without going on a weight loss diet, try these simple steps: 1. Wake Up Early . 2. Take a Brisk Walk. 3. Do not skip breakfast. 4. Eat a balanced lunch. 5. Eat Smaller, Frequent Portions. 6. Drink a lot of water during the day. Drink a glass of water every 2 hours or so.   7. At least 2 hours between dinner and bedtime. 8Read MoreSocial Networking Sites-Boon/Bane15517 Words   |  63 Pagesalso found concerns about the ability of people to tamper with the tracking technology and lie about where they are. Accuracy aside, people were concerned about the potential for the technology to erode trust among friends and family, says Abbas, who presented the pilot study results at this weeks IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society conference in Wollongong. Youre working towards trusting a technology rather than trusting someone youre in a relationship with, she said.Read MoreEssay on Fall of Asclepius95354 Words   |  382 Pagesworthy; Zombies. It was a simple word. At the same time it was the most complicated word to enter any human language. I mean just think about it... You say that word to anyone before the outbreak and what would they think of? They would, think of those horror movies or comic books where, for no reason what so ever, zombies appear all around the globe in an instance. Thats not how it happened for us. There were signs for over two months. Its just that no one took the time to put the pieces togetherRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesInc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational behavior /Read MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesMorin−Jarrell Leadership, Fifth Edition Hughes−Ginnett−Curphy The Art of M A: Merger/Acquisitions/Buyout Guide, Third Edition Reed−Lajoux and others . . . This book was printed on recycled paper. Management Copyright  ©2005 by The McGraw−Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in anyRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pages mymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Accounts and Finance

Questions: You are Susans assistant and you have been asked to prepare a report that is backed by scholarly literature addressing the following issues regarding approaches to compensation: a. Typical elements of compensation packages b. Outline the key assumptions of traditional agency theory and theirinfluence on approaches to compensation c. Explain the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and therelationship between the two motivations d. How might an employees attitude to risk influence their desiredcompensation package? e. How might the time period when employee receives a financial benefitinfluence they desire for the benefit? f. What role do fairness considerations have when determiningcompensation? g. Why an executive compensation committee may provide benefits indetermining compensation. h. How to structure an executive compensation committee to achieve thebest outcomes. i. Conclusion: use the information in your previous answers to developrecommendations for determining compensation that enhance job satisfaction and work motivation. Answers: Introduction In the given report, a construction company, whose director and CEO is Bill Strong is worried about the decreasing motivation of its employees. Therefore, he wants to introduce an executive compensation committee to reward its employees in which the executives will be given shares of the company, which will be held in the trust for three years before employees can sell them. For this reason, he has appointed a CFO to look after the matter who has suggested that the intrinsic value must be taken into account whereas CEO is of view that traditional agency theory approach must be implemented to determine compensation of executives. Discussion (a) Elements of Compensation Executives are one of the important factors for the growth and sustainability an enterprise hence compensation package is another factor that is paid to the executives in return of the work performed by them (Major, Sawyer and Kunstman 2013). The compensation package differs from company to company but there are some basic elements of the compensation package that are same. In the given case of Strong Built Construction Company, a new Chief Financial Officer, Susan Bold is appointed who seeks information for typical elements of compensation that are stated as follows: Basic Salary Annual or Quarterly Bonus Other Bonus Stock Options Stock Equity Pre- tax contribution Health perquisites Life and Accident Insurance Travelling or Legal Insurance Other basic perquisites The above-mentioned elements are basic elements, which an organization provides to its executives whereas; these elements may vary from entity to entity based on factors like geographical region, industrial norms and policy, professional qualification and experience (LaCosse et al. 2015). Further, an organization may provide high basic salary and low compensations and perquisites while some companys may provide low basic salary and high compensations and perquisites depending on the industrial policies. (b) Assumptions and influence of traditional agency theory Agency theory is the relationship between principals and agents. Principals are those who hire agents to perform task according their need and in return pay them remuneration. The key assumptions of traditional agency theory are the principals are the masters and employees have to do what their masters tell them to do (Moradi et al. 2014). The relation between the argents and principals are not always harmonious, it is concerned with conflicts within the agency only, it has implication on business ethics and corporate governance and it gives rise to agency cost. Because of this agency assumption, it gives rise to conflict in employer-employee relationship. It also tends to de motivate the employees and discourage them while performing their work. If this thing happen in an organization on a regular basis then will become more and more difficult to achieve organizational goals and objectives (Sonnier 2013). The stakeholders will also lose faith on executives and board members on whom they have delegated authorities. (c) Difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation is a kind of motivation in which employees are motivated to work hard in order to get reward or avoid any type of punishment. Intrinsic motivation is a kind of motivation in which an employee work hard in order to satisfy him personally without and external reward i.e. doing any work for own sake (Wilkins, Hermanson and Cohen 2015). The main difference of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is that extrinsic motivation comes from inside whereas intrinsic motivation comes from external reward. Various surveys have shown that excessive external reward for a task for which employees are already internally motivated can lend down the intrinsic motivation of an executive (Conyon 2014). Extrinsic motivation can be helpful in situation where individual have no personal interest on the work, it is best to motivate an employee when a new training to obtain new skills is to be given to the employee. The relations between these two motivations are external rewards which are given unexpectedly does not reduce intrinsic. Praising can also help to increase the employees internal motivation. Both the motivation if put together, can play an important role in setting up learning objectives and motivate the employees. (d) Employees attitude toward risk affecting their package In an organization, there are various factors, which influence the attitude of an employee. The management policies toward their employees give rise to the risk factor within the employees. If the management tendency is to terminate their employees if their performance falls below certain level or punish then it will give rise to internal risk of low job security among the employees and they will demand higher compensation for maintaining a certain standard of work (Hermanson et al. 2012). If the work done by the employees is highly risky to their health or other issues then they will demand higher compensation package for working in such environment. This issue must be taken into account by the management of the company while determining the compensation package of a employee. It is a very well known fact that if employees can smell risks factor in their job then they will tend to demand a high package (McCall et al. 2014). So management must ensure that there no risk factor in the job done by their employees or at least minimize the risk factor so that the employee cost of the overall organization is lower. (e) Time-period of receiving financial benefit. Whenever any financial benefit is given by the organization to its employees, it is a bit time consuming. Time is required due to various reasons like calculating and processing with the incentives, certain structure of the rewards like employees stock option scheme where first company gives an option to their employees then employees execute their option after certain fixed time and then the company makes allotment (Dittmann, Yu and Zhang 2015). This can be very lengthy process sometimes, which may affect the desire of the employees toward the benefit. Employees may tend to think that they may not even get the incentives after such long period as it will get un-noticed by the management and their hard work will have no reorganization. If an employees is of urgent need of money and because of that he tends to work hard to get incentives immediately then benefits given to him after a long period of time will not be of any help to him. (f) Fairness consideration while determining compensation The management of an organization must while determining incentives and rewards payable to their employees consider fairly the hard work done by all employees. Management must not be partial towards some employees i.e. they must not prioritize their employees. If partiality becomes a companys policy then it will hamper its reputation and de-motivate their employees (Guthrie, Sokolowsky and WAN 2012). Most of the executives will not be willing to work hard if they come to know that their effort will never be rewarded as some of the executives who have linkups with top management will only be rewarded even though they did not perform well. All the employees of the organization must be treated equally by the management to motivate them achieve organizational goals and objectives. (g) Executive compensation committee The main object of Executive compensation committee is to perform the responsibility delegated by board of directors in managing and designing executive compensation for its executives. While performing its duties the committee must take into account the monetary as well as non-monetary compensation and benefits payable to its executives. The committee should take advice from a self-governing compensation consultant hired by the organization. The advisor will independently act without any bounding from the management, evaluate the performance of each executive, and compute the benefits and rewards accruable to them accordingly (Boyle and Roberts 2013). This will also motivate the executives, as there will be fair consideration of their hard work. (h) Structure of Executive Compensation Committee As per new rules made by Australian government, every listed company must have an Executive committee consisting of independent directors. The committee must comprise of at least three to six members. The average members of executive compensation committee are 5. The independent directors must not have any financial interest in the organization. The executive committee must meet at least 4 times in a year and at least once in a year. The members of the committee may not be expert in deciding compensation but they should have the knowledge of analyzing cost, benefits and risk (Bol, Hecht and Smith 2015). The committee members must have the capability to ask complicated questions and put a limitation on the payment made to the executives. The members of the committee must be rotated at periodic intervals to ensure transparency in the committee. (i) Conclusion From the typical analysis of the above questions, a clear understanding of various compensation packages required to motivate the employees is obtained. Traditional agency theory can and its impact on the organization is understandable from the above analysis. The difference between external and internal motivation and their relation is clear. The risk factor that affects the compensation on an executive is also discussed. The time factor to getting the rewards and incentives can also affect the motivation of the employees to work hard. Fairness in determining the compensation is also a big motivating factor for its employees. The structure and role of executive compensatory is also analyzed. References Bol, J.C., Hecht, G. and Smith, S.D., 2015. Managers' discretionary adjustments: The influence of uncontrollable events and compensation interdependence.Contemporary Accounting Research,32(1), pp.139-159. Boyle, G. and Roberts, H., 2013. CEO presence on the compensation committee: a puzzle.Journal of Economics and Business,70, pp.16-26. Conyon, M.J., 2014. Executive compensation and board governance in US firms.The Economic Journal,124(574), pp.F60-F89. Dittmann, I., Yu, K.C. and Zhang, D., 2015. How important are risk-taking incentives in executive compensation?.Available at SSRN 1176192. Guthrie, K., Sokolowsky, J. and WAN, K.M., 2012. CEO compensation and board structure revisited.The Journal of Finance,67(3), pp.1149-1168. Hermanson, D.R., Tompkins, J.G., Veliyath, R. and Ye, Z.S., 2012. The Compensation Committee Process*.Contemporary Accounting Research,29(3), pp.666-709. LaCosse, J., Tuscherer, T., Kunstman, J.W., Plant, E.A., Trawalter, S. and Major, B., 2015. Suspicion of White people's motives relates to relative accuracy in detecting external motivation to respond without prejudice.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,61, pp.1-4. Major, B., Sawyer, P.J. and Kunstman, J.W., 2013. Minority Perceptions of Whites Motives for Responding Without Prejudice The Perceived Internal and External Motivation to Avoid Prejudice Scales.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, p.0146167213475367. McCall, C., Steinbeis, N., Ricard, M. and Singer, T., 2014. Compassion meditators show less anger, less punishment, and more compensation of victims in response to fairness violations.Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience,8. Moradi, S., Garcia, D., Andersson Arntn, A.C. and Archer, T., 2014. Motivation as a Mediator: Internal External Factors fostering Employee Engagement. In26th Association for Psychological Science Annual Convention. San Francisco, California, USA. Sonnier, B.M., 2013. The effects of wrongdoer motivation and internal versus external reporting channel on the intention to report fraud.Journal of Forensic Investigative Accounting,5(2), pp.77-113. Wilkins, A.M., Hermanson, D.R. and Cohen, J.R., 2015. Do Compensation Committee Members Perceive Changing CEO Incentive Performance Targets Mid-Cycle to be Fair?

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Piezoelectric Nano

Introduction Piezoelectric nano-biosensors are designed to operate in the nano-dimensions. They are mainly used to conduct an analysis of various biomaterial samples with the chief objective of understanding bio-compositions, functionalities, and even their structures (Atta 2011).Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Piezoelectric Nano-biosensor Importance specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although different modes of operations are deployed by different biosensors, their central principle of operation is based on the interactions of physical and or chemical detectors and the biological components. Through this interaction, it becomes possible to detect and analyse analytes (Joshi Bhansali 2008). A biological recognition element that incorporates a nano-material or nano-scale phenomena having the capability to convert the cognized event through transduction process into an appropriate signal in chemical of physica l format is the building block of piezoelectric nano-biosensors. In these sense, piezoelectric nano-biosensors form the bridge between the biological spectrum and the chemical and or physical spectrums (Khana 2012). Some of the detection principles of operation of nano-biosensors include optical, mechanical, chemical, and piezoelectric detection ideologies. The focus of this paper is on the piezoelectric bio-sensing detection principle. The science behind piezoelectric nano-biosensors Piezoelectric transducers are deployed in the signal detection process to change mechanical force that is exacted by masses placed on a crystal onto some electrical signal, which while amplified is used to proportionately measure the mass of an object placed on the piezoelectric material. When a mass is placed on top of piezoelectric material, the material resonates with a frequency proportional to the mass placed on it. A voltage proportionate to the size of the mass is generated (Dey Goswami 2011).A dvertising Looking for case study on natural sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the nano-dimensions, piezoelectric materials or nano-biosensors deploying the piezzo electric principle of operation possess immobilised elements of sensing on some piezoelectric crystals. A good example of material that can be deployed to function as a piezoelectric transducer is â€Å"functionalised quartz crystal with dehydrogenate to detect formaldehyde† (Pohanka et al. 2007: 2826). However, it is perhaps also crucial to note that, when voltage is applied across a piezoelectric material, the material deforms proportionately to the amount of voltage applied. An immense theoretical study on the operation principle of the piezoelectric material has been developed. Whether at nano level or even in the kilo level, the basic principle of operation remains the same. Sauerbrey (Ho 1999), Stockridge (Hahn 1988) and Lostis (Muramatsu et al. 1987) deployed different approaches to develop equations that describe the relationship between the frequency of resonance for an oscillating crystal of a piezoelectric material and a mass placed on the surface of the crystal. Although the three scholars’ equations are similar, Sauerbrey’s equation has received a universal acceptance (Ho 1999). Sauerbrey’s equation relates to an AT-cut quartz crystal â€Å"vibrating in the thickness shear mode that describes the relationship between mass of thin films deposited on the quartz crystal and the corresponding change in resonant frequency of the crystal† (Hussain et al. 1997: 505).Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Piezoelectric Nano-biosensor Importance specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The change in frequency for an oscillating quartz crystal in Hz is given by the equation: Source: (Hussain et al. 1997: 505) In the equation, denot es the change in mass that produces a corresponding variation in frequency Advertising Looking for case study on natural sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More . A is the electrode surface area measured in cm2. The described relationship by Sauerbrey is not only applicable to film depositions but equally applicable to deposition of particulate matter (Hussain et al. 1997: 505). In the thickness-shear mode of vibration, the overall frequency of oscillation of AT-cut quartz crystal is described by the equation: F defines the crystal frequency, N is a constant of the material used to make the piezoelectric sensor, and ‘a’ defines the thickness of the material used to make the crystal. For a quartz crystal, which is the most typical material deployed to make piezoelectric transducers, N is given by 1.66 MHz-mm. The thickness of a crystal can be defined by the equation: Where M stands for the electrically driven portion of the mass of the crystal, A the eclectically driven crystal area, and Rho (⠍ ´) defines the crystal’s density. Since the crystal of quartz is in solid state, its density is constant. Consequently, for an infinite change in mass M, the corresponding change in frequency registered by the piezoelectric transducer is given by: Source: (Hussain et al. 1997: 505) However, in the practical application of piezoelectric transducer, F and M are constants so that is given by where K is the constant defined by This equation shows that the change in frequency produced by a piezoelectric biosensors inserted in an analyte is proportionate to the change in mass. This principle can be applied in the construction of piezoelectric biosensor used in treatment of tuberculosis process as described later in the paper. Example of a nano-biosensor, which utilises piezoelectric detection principle A good example of biosensor that utilises piezoelectric principle is the micro membrane biosensors. The sensor makes use of thin films of crystal falling in the range of 10 to 30nm (Woolley, 2000). When placed near cells, they are able to detect the masses of the cells and hence their presence. The detection process is realised via measurements of natural frequencies of the vibrating crystals. The frequency is a function of the mass placed on the piezoelectric sensing element. Applying such sensors in the immunology demands that the masses of cell belonging to infectious organizations are known so that the frequency registered can be used to identify the type of pathogen in the body of a host. In some situations, during infections, the pathogen cell interacts with body defence mechanism cells, which comprise the antibodies through the engulfing process. When such a process occurs, rapid changes in the frequencies of the piezoelectric nano-sensor occur so that, even if the immunologist may not be fully cognizant about the specific type of infection a patient is suffering from, he or she can be able to detect anomalies in the patient’s body. When micro-membrane biosensors are used this way, they form an essential component of pre-diagnosis process. Difference of nano biosensors an d conventional non-nano methods: advantages and disadvantages Interaction of antibodies with antigens provides a wonderful opportunity for development of chemical binding based biosensor. In theoretical terms, in case it is possible to raise an antibody against a specific analyte, it becomes possible to develop an immune-sensor to recognise it, for which piezoelectric sensor is one of the imuno-sensors. It is also important to note, â€Å"Despite high specificity and affinity of antibodies towards complementary ligand molecules, most antibody-antigen interactions do not cause an electronically measurable change† (Kumar 2008: 198). This forms a major challenge of application of nano biosensors in the detection of changes in the analyte masses for possible detection of pathogens, for instance, those causing TB. Nonetheless, this argument does not mean that it is impossible to develop a piezoelectric biosensor such as the one described in the subsequent sections of the paper. Pi ezoelectric biosensors can be produced from a myriad of crystalline substances. Such substances have incredible properties, which facilitates precise detection of analytes for presence of antigen-antibody reactions. Indeed, a piezoelectric â€Å"immune-sensor is thought to be one of the most sensitive analytical instruments developed to date, being capable of detecting antigens in the pictogram range† (Kumar 2000: 198). Opposed to traditional sensors, the piezoelectric biosensors can detect the antigens while in both liquid and gaseous phases. When the developed device is applied in detection of changes in mass of amalgamations formed due to reaction between the antigens and antibodies because of infection of tuberculosis bacterium, principle advantages are gained while the functionality of the device is compared with the traditional approaches in tuberculosis detection procedures and processes. In fact, the traditional approaches to diagnosis of tuberculosis have repetitive drawbacks. Generally, they are time consuming. In some instances, they are non-specific. Kumar (2000) exemplifies this argument by asserting, â€Å"In most cases of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB, diagnosis depends upon culturing the micro-bacterial organism, a process requiring 4-8 weeks† (199). Consequently, in the attempt to counter this challenges, magnificent attention has been directed towards development of mechanisms of diagnosis of TB, which are rapid and time cautious by various researchers. Some of the developed strategies fail to have high sensitivity and specificity for the required appropriate diagnosis (Kumar 2000). It is for this reason that the proposed piezoelectric biosensor is both appropriate and significant in driving new approaches for tuberculosis detection or diagnosis. The science and principles of operation of traditional biosensors do not constitute an adequate basis for advocating their utilisation in practice. Issues such as economic factors in relation to their manufacturing coupled with their functionalities are also critical. The main question is, ‘how effective are the traditional biosensors in realisation of the purposes they are designed to accomplish?’ The rapid explosions of technology and science experienced over the last three decades pose challenges to the applicability of the traditional biosensors in the era of scientific and technological evolution. Such challenges manifest themselves in terms of improvement of the accuracy and preciseness of the transducers, multiplexing (the capacity for detection of biomarkers in a simultaneous manner), reduction of costs associated with manufacturing, and operation of the gadgets (Prakash et al 2012: Bhushan 2012). It is through the need to resolve some of these challenges of the traditional biosensors that the nano-biosensors have been developed. A particular concern for embracement of the proposed piezoelectric nano-biosensors in the diagnosis of TB is art iculated to the need to increase the specificity and sensitivity of the traditional biosensors in the quest to facilitate early detection of the associated signals to be measured. A major advantage of using the nano-biosensors in opposition to the traditional biosensors is that, while traditional biosensors utilise â€Å"any specific substance â€Å"as the analyte, the nano-biosensor uses â€Å"any substances with the potential to detect a single molecule or fragment of DNA† (Adam Kizek 2008, p.6129). This argument means that the detection is narrowed to molecular level. Nano-bio-sensing is achieved in the same manner under various approaches. These approaches include the use of antigen-antibody interactions, cell based, and enzymes catalysis and through nucleic acid recognition. Nonetheless, nano-bio-sensing extends this approach to include ELISA and nanonfluidic technology and techniques. Mass-production of the sensor, details of the fabrication method and cost-effective ness Mass production In the mass production of products, reproducibility is an important factor. In mass production of piezoelectric nano-biosensors, reproducibility is a major hindrance. The sensitivity and precision of piezoelectric biosensor are directly proportional to the dimensional accuracy including the shape of the crystal cut. The obstacles coupled with other obstacles such as â€Å"presence of biomaterial in the biosensor (immobilisation of bimolecules on transducers, stability of enzymes and antibodies), the development of the sensor device (sensitivity and reproducibility issues) and the integration of biosensors into complete systems† (Velasco-Garcia Mottram 2003: 5) impair the mass production of the piezoelectric biosensor. However, with new advents of production technologies such as rapid prototyping and computer aided precision machining, it is possible to mass-produce the device’s components. Details of the fabrication In this section, a practical pi ezoelectric biosensor is described. Since a nano-piezoelectric biosensor would require highly precise machining process and intricate fabrication techniques, which are not realisable in the context of this paper, the discussed example of piezoelectric biosensor does not fall in the nano range. The block diagram (Fig 1) below illustrates the schematically the components of the nano-biosensor showing how they are related with one another. Fig 1: Block diagram for the piezoelectric sensor Source: (Pohanka et al. 2007) The piezoelectric sensor is composed of three main components. These are gold electrode, quartz crystal, and the base plate. Quartz crystal used is made of alpha quartz since such a crystal is not soluble in water. It is also resistant to high temperatures (Pohanka et al. 2007). Indeed, alpha quartz crystal has the capacity to withstand temperature up to 579 degree centigrade without losing prosperities of piezoelectric. The resonance frequency of the quartz crystal is a function of the physical dimensions and measurements of the cut crystal. AT-cut crystal is the most preferred for the discussed piezoelectric biosensor since it has been proved through scholarly researches that it is the most stable. Its temperature coefficient is 1ppm per degree centigrade within a temperature range of 10 degrees centigrade to 50 degree centigrade. This property is important since the temperature under which the piezoelectric sensor proposed here will operate (under environmental standard temperature) is in this temperature range. The crystal can also be modified to take a number of forms including rectangles, discs, and squares. The figure below shows schematically the details of the fabrication of the sensor as discussed by Kumar (2000). Source: (Kumar 2000) In the process of imuno-sensing, a protein extracted from Staphylococcus aureus is used to modify the surface of the coating of the device to increase the adhesion properties of the antibodies. The form of Staphylococcus protein used is capable to bind on the molecules of the imunoglobin particularly the IgG antibodies. When immersed in a tube containing antigens, it is anticipated that antigen-antibody reaction will occur thus causing a change in the mass on the crystal. From the developed theory of operation of the device, a corresponding frequency change occurs. The frequency counter will record this change in frequency as a change (ââ€" ³F). Since antibody-antigen reaction is anticipated to occur in magnitudes corresponding to the concentration levels of antigens, the higher the frequency changes, the higher the concentration of antigens. Consequently, it is more likely for the patients from whom the antigens have been obtained to suffer from advanced TB. Cost effectiveness One of the central challenges on the commercial production of nano-sensors is associated with the cost of production of micro components of the sensors with high degrees of precision. Although, over the last t wo decades, these costs have been significantly high, the developments in the nanotechnology has made is possible to produce components for biosensors at significantly low costs (Joshi, Sharma Harsha, 2011). The rapid developments in production process such as rapid prototyping make it possible for the sensor to be produced in a cost effective manner. Conclusion Piezo nano-biosensors encompass the nano-scale sensing devices deployed to detect a myriad of analytes including microorganisms, proteins, nucleic acids, metal, and metabolites among others. In the production of these sensors, nanotechnology is playing pivotal role. In this context, the paper argues that nanotechnology has resulted in the revolution of the immunology technology in the extent that it is now possible to apply biosensors to detect presence of pathogens at the molecular level. This provides a possibility for early treatment. By fully appreciating that there are many detection principles that can be applied in t he development of nano-biosensors, the paper limited itself to the piezoelectric principle of detection. A possible piezoelectric sensor has been discussed in the paper alongside with its fabrications and operation principles. The paper argued that deploying antigens-antibody mechanism of detection of increases in masses resulting from antibody- antigens reactions due to the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The sensor can aid in the early diagnosis of tuberculosis than it would ordinarily happen by the use of convectional nano-biosensors. Bibliography Adam, V R Kizek, ‘Utilization of Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology’, Sensors, vol. 8, no. 10, 2008, pp.6125–6131. Atta, N, A Galal, S Ali, Nanobiosensors for health care, Biosensors for Health, Environment and Biosecurity, 2011. Web. Bhushan, B, ‘Biosensors: surface structures and materials’, Philosophical transactions, Mathematical, physical, and engineeri ng sciences, vol. 370, no.1967, 2012, pp.2267–2268. Dey, D T Goswami, ‘Optical Biosensors: A Revolution towards Quantum Nanoscale Electronics Device Fabrication’, Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol.12, no. 5, 2011, pp 356-361. Hahn, C Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors and Their Applications, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, 1998. Ho, M, Applications of Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalances, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1999. Hussain, I et al. ‘Fabrication of Piezoelectric Sensors for Biomedical Applications’, MRS Symp. Proc. Materials for Smart System, vol. 459, no.31, 1997, pp. 501-506. Joshi, Y, C Sharma, P Harsha, ‘Zeptrogram scale mass sensing using single walled carbon nanotube based biosensors’, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 168, no,11, 2011, pp. 275-280. Joshi, R S Bhansali, ‘Nanosensor Technology’, Journal of Nanomaterials, vol. 1, no. 1, 2008, pp. 1-10. Khana, V, Nanosensors: Physical Chemi cal and Biological, Florida: CRC Press. Kumar, K 2000, ‘Biosensors Based on Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors: Theory and Application’, JOM, vol. 52, no.10, 2012, pp. 198-207. Muramatsu, H et al. ‘Piezoelectric Crystal Biosensor Modified with Protein A for Determination of Immunoglobulins’, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 59, no.19, 1987, pp. 2760-2763. Pohanka, M et al. ‘Piezoelectric Biosensor for a Simple Serological Diagnosis of Tularemia in Infected European Brown Hares’, Sensors, vol.7, no.11, 2007, pp. 2825–2834. Prakash, S, M Pinti, B Bhushan, ‘Theory, fabrication and applications of microfluidic and nanofluidic biosensors’, Philosophical transactions, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, vol. 370, no.196, 2012, pp. 2269–2303. Velasco-Garcia, M T Mottram, ‘Biosensor Technology addressing Agricultural Problems’, Biosystems Engineering, vol. 84, no.1, 2003, pp. 1–12. Woolley, T, L Che ung, H Hafner, M Lieber, ‘Structural biology with carbon nanotube AFM probes’, Chemistry and Biology, vol. 7 no. 3, 2000, pp. 192-204. This case study on Piezoelectric Nano-biosensor Importance was written and submitted by user Allison H. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Learn how to write a perfect paper

Learn how to write a perfect paper Little Known Ways to Write a Perfect Paper There may not really be such a thing as the â€Å"perfect paper,† but if you can write one and get an â€Å"A,† that is pretty darn close. Most professors do not give â€Å"A’s,† unless a paper is truly superior, especially when compared to the others that have been submitted. Most students, including you, know the process for writing paper assignments – choosing a topic, coming up with a thesis (the point you are making), doing the research, making an outline, writing the rough draft, getting all of the citations in, revising, and writing the final draft. All of these steps are absolutely necessary if your paper is to have sound structure and read well. The other really important part of producing an â€Å"A† paper is the ability to write well – to use proper sentence structure, grammar and punctuation, as well as style and vocabulary that is appropriate for your academic level. Now, here are some things you may not have thought of that will improve the chances for an â€Å"A,† and chances are teacher or professor ever gave you these â€Å"specific† pointers. Talk to your professor about your topic. Chances are, you will have a content field from you can choose options for writing a paper. And chances are, your professor has given a range of pages, perhaps 8-10. Once you have decided on your topic, email your professor, or better, stop by during his/her office hours and get his/her thoughts on your chosen topic. If that topic is too broad or too narrow, s/he will tell you so and perhaps make suggestions for refining it further. You have accomplished two things here: 1) your professor is a bit flattered that you have come to seek advice, and 2) you have refined your topic to meet his/her length requirements. You have also saved yourself the grief that can come from choosing a topic that is too broad and having too much written on it, or, worse, choosing one that is too narrow and not being able to find enough resources to meet the minimum page length. Don’t choose your thesis until you have completed your research. You may already have one in mind, and that is fine, but once you have finished the research, one of two things may have happened: 1) you may find a thesis that works better for the topic and/or 2) you may have changed your perspective on your original thoughts and now have a much better thesis with which to work. Don’t forget, you get a thesis by asking very specific questions: Why is this topic even important? If there are differing opinions, which ones do I find most valid and with which one do I agree most Which theses are other authors using on the topic, and will one of them work as a thesis for me? Sometimes re-wording the thesis of a respected authority on a subject, as long as you agree with it, works really well. Organizing your research into sub-topics can be a laborious, because you have to match stuff from several authors on each sub-topic. The traditional method has always been to use note cards and to use a different notecard from each author for each sub-topic addressed (and to be certain that the information for in-text citations is on that card).   You then compose your outline from the stacks of cards you have collated. Here are two other approaches that some students find more helpful: Once you have finished the research, sit back and think about the major points that most or all of the authors made. These then become your sub-topics. What you can then do is this: Put each sub-topic into a separate Word document, and then go through your notes, topic by topic and insert the information you intend to use with the citation information with it into each of the related Word documents. Print those out, and use those instead of an outline. If you have read one piece of research in which sub-topics have been extremely well organized and include all of the sub-topics you actually want to include, then by all means, model your sub-topics after those of that author. You do not have to â€Å"re-invent a wheel† that someone else has already invented! No professor will ever suggest that you do this, but it is a great option, as long as you do not plagiarize. Paper writing requires good command of the English language and the ability to translate information, concepts and thoughts into scholarly writing. If you have difficulty with this, you have several options: Go to your campus writing lab and get some help. This is a feasible solution if you have the time and if someone is available to really help you with paragraph and sentence structure, as well as grammar. You can write your rough draft and take it in for editing and polishing. Write your rough draft and find a friend who is a really good writer. S/he may have time to review and edit for you. Consider using a custom writing paper service that is able to provide all levels of help, from editing and proofreading your rough draft to actually producing an original, custom paper for you. There is no huge mystique about writing a great paper. It takes commitment and hard work. Using a few of these tips, however, may â€Å"ease your pain† somewhat.